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neurofeedback Research

Head Injury

Review Papers

Neurofeedback in patients with frontal brain lesions: a randomized, controlled double-blind trial
by Christine Annaheim, Kerstin Hug, Caroline Stumm, Maya Messerli, Yves Simon, Margret Hund-Georgiadis
This formal research study targeted recently acquired frontal brain lesions in a double-blind, sham-controlled design. 20 patients were randomized to the two treatments, and they underwent 20 training sessions. Whereas the group differences were not significant at 20 sessions, a subgroup with predominantly frontal lesions distinguished itself in two tests, the Frontal Assessment Battery and in intrinsic alertness.

Front. Hum. Neurosci. 16:979723. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.979723

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ILF Neurofeedback in Application to Concussion - Use of Novel Concussion Protocol With Infralow Frequency Neuromodulation Demonstrates Significant Treatment Response in Patients With Persistent Post-concussion Symptoms, a Retrospective Study
by Stella B. Legarda, Caroline E. Lahti, Dana McDermott, and Andreas Michas-Martin
This retrospective report evaluated ILF Neurofeedback in patients with post-concussion symptoms, as well as those with persistent post-concussion symptoms, that were seen over the course of about two years. 25 patients received treatment as usual plus ILF NF with a concussion protocol that deviated slightly from the usual standard set. These were compared with 26 patients who received only treatment as usual. Outcomes favored the ILF NF cohort to a statistically and clinically significant degree.

Front. Hum. Neurosci. 16:894758. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.894758

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Electroencephalogram Biofeedback for Reading Disability and Traumatic Brain Injury
by Thornton KE Ph.D. and Carmody DP Ph.D.

Reading disabilities present major challenges to the educational system. The estimated prevalence rate for learning disabilities is 15% of the student population [1], with 6.5 million children requiring special education in 2002 [2]. Approximately 63% of these special education children have specific learning disabilities or speech and language problems without a concomitant physical disability. Between 28% and 43% of inmates in adult correctional facilities require special education (versus 5% in normal population), and 82% of prison inmates in the United States are school dropouts [3].

EEG Operant Conditioning (biofeedback) and Traumatic Brain Injury [abs.]
by Thatcher RW

A review is presented of the currently sparse literature about EEG operant conditioning or biofeedback as a treatment to reduce symptomology and patient complaints following a traumatic brain injury.


Neurofeedback Impact on Chronic Headache, Sleep, and Attention Disorders Experienced by Veterans with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study [pdf]
by Judy Carlson, EdD, APRN, FNP, BCN,1 and G. Webster Ross, MD1,2

A good number of veterans while serving in recent combat zones experienced blast injuries resulting in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), 80% of which were mild (m) with 25%–50% having prolonged postconcussive symptoms (PCSs). Neurofeedback (NFB) has demonstrated a decent degree of efficacy with mTBI PCSs in civilian and veteran populations. Using infra-low frequency NFB, the authors conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy with veterans. Because these results were promising, funding for a full clinical trial was subsequently applied for and acquired.

The Elusive Nature of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury [pdf]
by Swatzyna RJ, PhD

The author discloses a personal history of undiagnosed mild traumatic brain injury (MBTI) and identifies a typical course and progression of this condition. He advocates a careful inquiry for possible head injury whenever the clinical history shows an original period of normal functioning, a progression of disturbance over time, multiple diagnoses, and poor response to treatment with medication.

Thoughts About the Study of Cognitive-linked Brain Dysfunction Physiology After Mild Closed-head Trauma
by Gross HS M.S. M.D.

Some people, after a mild closed-head trauma of either direct-impact or non-impact acceleration/ deceleration type, do not return to pre-trauma cognitive and emotional behavior. While their brain functioning appears relatively intact under some circumstances, it performs poorly under others.

Research Papers

Impact of qEEG-Guided Coherence Training for Patients with a Mild Closed Head Injury [abs.]
by Jonathan E. Walker MD, Neuroscience Centers, Inc., Dallas, TX, Charles A. Norman, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Ronald K. Weber, Neuroscience Centers, Inc.

Recovery from mild closed head injury (of >50%) was noted in 88% of the patients (mean recovery = 72.7%). All patients reported that they were able to return to work following the treatment, if they had been employed prior to the injury. On average, 19 sessions were required, less than the average of 38 sessions required using power training of Cz-Beta in our previous unpublished study. Conclusions. In this uncontrolled open trial of QEEG-guided coherence training, the majority of patients with mild closed head injury experienced substantial and rapid symptomatic improvement, including return to work. Further study with controls and additional outcomes measures is warranted.

Neurofeedback Therapy for a Mild Head Injury
by Byers AP

The purpose of this study was to evaluate Neurofeedback Therapy (NFT) for a Mild Head Injury (MHI). The subject was a 58-year-old female who fell and struck her head in 1988. The NFT began in 1994 and was preceded and followed by neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological evaluations as well as quantified electroencephalograms (QEEG). The patient completed a symptom checklist and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MAPI- 2) before and after NFT.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Head Injury
by Hoffman DA M.D., Stockdale S Ph.D., Hicks LL B.A., Schwaninger JE B.A.

Brain injury appears to affect from 132 to 367 people per 100,000. Traditional methods for diagnosing mild head injury, such as medical history, CAT scan and MRI, often show normal test results even though patients complain of significant neurocognitive dysfunctions. Robert Thatcher compiled a normative reference EEG database in 1979. The norms were replicated in several studies.

Changes After EEG Biofeedback and Cognitive Retraining in Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
by Tinius TP Ph.D. and Tinius KA M.S.W.

Adults diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were treated with EEG Biofeedback and cognitive retraining.

EEG NeuroBioFeedback Treatment of Patients with Brain Injury: Part 3: Cardiac Parameters and Finger Temperature Changes Associated with Rehabilitation
by Laibow RE MD, Stubblebine AN MSc, Sandground MB DSc

Twenty-seven patients with brain injury were treated by computer-assisted electroencephalographic NeuroBioFeedback (EEG-NBF). All patients were medication-free during treatment.

EEG NeuroBioFeedback Treatment of Patients with Brain Injury Part 4: Duration of Treatments as a Function of Both the Initial Load of Clinical Symptoms and the Rate of Rehabilitation
by Bounias M DSc, Laibow RE MD, Stubblebine AN MSc, Sandground H, Bonaly A DScr

Twenty-seven patients with brain injury, primarily from car accidents and stroke, were treated by computer-assisted electroencephalographic NeuroBioFeedback (EEG-NBF).

Improvement/Rehabilitation of Memory Functioning with Neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback [abs.]
by Thornton K

This article presents a new approach to the remediation of memory deficits by studying the electrophysiological functioning involved in memory and applying biofeedback techniques. A Quantitative EEG (QEEG) activation database was obtained with 59 right-handed subjects during two auditory memory tasks (prose passages and word lists). Memory performance was correlated with the QEEG variables.

Flexyx Neurotherapy System in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury: An Initial Evaluation [abs.]
by Schoenberger NE, Shif SC, Esty ML, Ochs L, Matheis RJ

Twelve people aged 21 to 53 who had experienced mild to moderately severe closed head injury at least 12 months previously and who reported substantial cognitive difficulties after injury, which interfered with their functioning.

Recent Research

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback.
Ros T, Théberge J, Frewen PA, Kluetsch R, Densmore M, Calhoun VD, and Lanius RA
NeuroImage, 65, 2013, pp 324-35

Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback.
Scharnowski F, Hutton C, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, and Rees G
Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2012, pp 17830-41

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.
Nazari MA, Mosanezhad E, Hashemi T, and Jahan A
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 315-22

Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.
Pineda JA, Juavinett A, and Datko M
Medical Hypotheses, 79, 2012, pp 790-8

Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD.
Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, and Rohde LA
Neurotherapeutics, 9, 2012, pp 588-98

Current status of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, and Hurt E
Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 2012, pp 536-42

Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory.
Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak PI, Mak PU, Vai MI, and Rosa A
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86, 2012, pp 83-7

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.
Nelson DV, and Esty ML
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 2012, pp 237-40

Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series.
Surmeli T, Ertem A, Eralp E, and Kos IH
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 133-44

Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy?
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, and Sadeghi V
Neuroscience Letters, 516, 2012, pp 156-60

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: validation and challenges.
Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, and Heinrich H
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 2012, pp 447-60

Taking back the brain: could neurofeedback training be effective for relieving distressing auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia?
McCarthy-Jones S
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 2012, pp 678-82

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, Hersch S, Hurt E, and DeBeus R
Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 2012, pp 351-72