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neurofeedback Research

Quantitative EEG & Related Research

Review Papers

The Role of Quantitative Electroencephalography in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders [abs.]
by Chabot RJ, di Michele F, Prichep L

This article presents a critical review of quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) research and issues relevant to its clinical application. Included is a summary of methodologic issues necessary for a reliable implementation of qEEG within clinical settings and a brief discussion of controversial issues surrounding this implementation.

Research Papers

Independent Biofeedback Self-Regulation of EEG Alpha and Skin Resistance [abs.]
by Suter S

Skin resistance and EEG alpha were recorded concurrently during alpha biofeedback, in which the participant attempted to control alpha, and during skin resistance biofeedback, in which the participant attempted to control skin resistance.

Topographical Brain Mapping in Depression Following Mild Closed Head Injury: A Case Study
by Dernaree HA, Crews Jr. WD, Harrison DW

In recent years, electroencephelagraphic and neuroimaging techniques have become increasingly popular among researchers for the investigation of the relationship between specific hemispheric asymmetries and clinical depression. These techniques may prove useful tools when used in conjunction with more common neuropsychological tests.

Quantitative EEG Findings Among Men Convicted of Murder
by Evans JR Ph.D. and Park Nan-Sook M.A.

Quantitative EEG data were collected from 20 men convicted of murder and sentenced to death. Measures of coherence, phase, amplitude asymmetry, and relative power from 19 scalp electrode sites during an eyes closed, resting condition were compared to a normative database. Measures significantly different from normal were tallied to determine electrode site locations with greatest concentrations of abnormalities.

Gates, States, Rhythms, and Resonances: The Scientific Basis of Neurofeedback Training
by Abarbanel A Ph.D. M.D.

This paper presents a set of electrophysiological and neurophysiological processes as bases for the efficacy of neurofeedback training (NT) for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. It then suggests neurophysiological commonalities between these disorders to explain the observed efficacy of NT for depression and OCD, and to suggest the possibility of adapting it to treat schizophrenia.

EEG Maturation
by Stassen HH, Katsanis J, Malone S, Iacon WG

Evidence from numerous investigations, including twin and familiy studies, has suggested that the inter-individual differences of human brain wave patterns (EEG) are predominantly determined by genetic factors [cf. Young et al. 1972; Propping et al. 1980; Stassen 1980; Lykken et al. 1982; Stassen 1985; Vogel 1986; Baier and Dose 1987; Christian et al. 1988; Stassen et al. 1988; Linkowski et al. 1989; Fujiwara et al. 1990; Meshkova 1992; Beijsterveldt and Boomsma 1994).

Study of a 12 Sib Family
by Stassen HH, Bomben G, Hell D

Our interest in the present study of a family consisting of 8 sisters and 4 brothers has a psychiatric background. We conjecture that investigations into the heredity of brain wave patterns may contribute to a better understanding of the complex familial aggregations of psychic illnesses. As compared to psychic illnesses, brain wave patterns exhibit a similar complexity on the trait level but on the other hand, they are "objectively" assessable, i.e. in a rater-independent way and in a standardized experimental setting. We therefore designed this study of a family with 8 sisters and 4 brothers in order to quantify the intra-familial phenotypic heterogeneity of EEG characteristics and to investigate the question of whether EEG characteristics are quantitative or qualitative traits.

Familial EEG Traits
by Stassen HH, Katsanis J, Malone S, Iacono WG

Our interest in the present twin/family study has a psychiatric background. That is, we think that investigations into the heritability of brain wave patterns might contribute to a better understanding of the complex familial aggregations of psychic illnesses. Indeed, methods of quantitative genetics applied in a large number of empirical studies have demonstrated that psychiatric diagnoses (used to define phenotypes) are not "elementary" but "emergenic" traits, i.e. traits that do not "run" in families. And at present it is still an unresolved issue of how to break down the phenotypic heterogeneity of psychiatric disease entities, and of how to tease apart the underlying multifactorial causes.

EEG Maturation in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. A Longitudinal Study of 200 Twin Pairs
by Stassen HH, Katsanis J, Malone S, Iacono WG, Propping P, Hell D

In a large twin-family study comprising EEG recordings of 919 subjects, we applied methods of quantitative genetics to explore the trait-like qualities of EEG parameters, and to quantify the proportions of phentotypic variance that can be attributed to genetic and environmental influences. Our study confirmed previous findings regarding the existence of strong heritable factors that contribute a major proportion to the inter-individual variance in human brain wave patterns.

To What Extent Do Brain-Morphologic Asymmetries Explain EEG Left-Right Differences
by Corboz M

Recent MRI studies comparing schizophrenic patients with healthy controls have provided evidence of brain-morphologic changes in the patients with schizophrenia. However, quantitative data derived from these studies indicated that the differences between patients and controls are generally slight and that there is a substantial normal variation in any of the morphometric measures.

Identical Twins: One has Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Can QEEG Discriminate?
by Budzynski T Ph.D. and Budzynski HK Ph.D.

This is a report on a continuing blinded study of identical twins, one of which has been diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Various measures of the QEEG, such as peak alpha frequency, A3/A1 (high/low) alpha ratio, SMR/theta, ratio of EC/EO alpha, etc. have been applied to the data. The QEEG has also been compared with the Lifespan Database.

The Benefits of Measuring Basal Skin Response During Neurofeedback Training [abs. pg.21]
by Kerson C B.A.

Surround Modulation Measured With Functional MRI in the Human Visual Cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 89: 525-533, 2003. Visual context profoundly influences 1) the responses of mammalian visual neurons and 2) the perceptual sensitivity of human observers to localized visual stimuli.

Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Adult Brain Plasticity as Measured by Quantitative Electroencephalogram [abs. pg.3]
by Black L M.S., Herrington R Ph.D., Hudspeth B Ph.D., Townsend A B.A., Bodenhamer-Davis E Ph.D.

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a problem of epidemic proportions that has been implicated by recent research to change brain structure and function in children (Ito, Teicher, Glod, & Ackerman, 1998).

Posterior Cingulate Cortex Activation by Emotional Words: fMRI Evidence from a Valence Decision Task
by Maddock RJ, Garrett AS, Buonocore MH

Functional imaging studies consistently find that emotional stimuli activate the posterior cingulate cortex, a region that appears to have memory-related functions. However, prior imaging studies have not controlled for non-emotional stimulus features that might activate this region by engaging memory processes unrelated to emotion.

Quantitative EEG Abnormalities in a Sample of Dyslexic Persons
by Evans JR Ph.D. and Park Nan-Sook M.A.

Definitions of terms such as dyslexia and specific reading disability commonly recognize a basis in central nervous system dysfunction. Past research has related this dysfunction to both structural and neural timing abnormalities. The present study used QEEG findings to provide further evidence for neural timing/coherence abnormalities in reading disabled persons.

EEG Power-Spectral and Coherence Differences Between Attentional States during a Complex Auditory Task
by Benham G B.Sc., Rasey HW B.A., Lubar JF Ph.D., Frederick JA M.S., Zoffuto AC B.S.

This electroencephalographic (EEG) study was designed to explore the differences in power spectra and coherence associated with subjective levels of engrossment, or absorption, in an auditory task.

The Effects of Visual Feedback on Hemispheric Alpha Asymmetries and Reported Processing Strategies: A Single-Subject Experimental Design [abs.]
by Jenkins P and Moore WH

A double reversal single-subject experimental design was used to study the effects of visual feedback on the hemispheric alpha asymmetries of a male subject during a linguistic task.

Biofeedback-Produced Hemispheric Asymmetry of Slow Cortical Potentials and Its Behavioural Effects [abs.]
by Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W

Two studies served to examine behavioural effects of slow cortical potentials (SPs). SPs were manipulated by means of a biofeedback procedure.

Preliminary Evidence That Daily Changes in Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Correlate with Changes in Affect in Therapy Sessions [abs.]
by Rosenfeld JP, Baehr E, Baehr R, Gotlib IH, Ranganath C

Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry was recorded from five depressed outpatients during early EEG biofeedback sessions. Mood was assessed prior to and after each session, and affect change scores were also derived by subtracting pre-session from post-session scores.

Operant (biofeedback) Control of Left-Right frontal Alpha Power Differences: Potential Neurotherapy for Affective Disorders [abs.]
by Rosenfeld JP, Cha G, Blair T, Gotlib IH

Two experiments were done with subjects from a paid pool of undergraduates. In each study, there were five 1-hour sessions on each of 5 days.

The Temporal Dynamics of Electroencephalographic Responses to Alpha/Theta Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Subjects
by Egner T Ph.D. and Gruzelier JH Ph.D.

It has been shown recently that accurate feedback of alpha and theta electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, as employed in the commonly used "alpha/theta protocol," induced linear increments in within-session theta-over-alpha ratios in comparison to non-contingent feedback in a healthy sample.

Recent Research

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback.
Ros T, Théberge J, Frewen PA, Kluetsch R, Densmore M, Calhoun VD, and Lanius RA
NeuroImage, 65, 2013, pp 324-35

Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback.
Scharnowski F, Hutton C, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, and Rees G
Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2012, pp 17830-41

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.
Nazari MA, Mosanezhad E, Hashemi T, and Jahan A
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 315-22

Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.
Pineda JA, Juavinett A, and Datko M
Medical Hypotheses, 79, 2012, pp 790-8

Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD.
Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, and Rohde LA
Neurotherapeutics, 9, 2012, pp 588-98

Current status of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, and Hurt E
Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 2012, pp 536-42

Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory.
Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak PI, Mak PU, Vai MI, and Rosa A
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86, 2012, pp 83-7

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.
Nelson DV, and Esty ML
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 2012, pp 237-40

Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series.
Surmeli T, Ertem A, Eralp E, and Kos IH
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 133-44

Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy?
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, and Sadeghi V
Neuroscience Letters, 516, 2012, pp 156-60

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: validation and challenges.
Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, and Heinrich H
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 2012, pp 447-60

Taking back the brain: could neurofeedback training be effective for relieving distressing auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia?
McCarthy-Jones S
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 2012, pp 678-82

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, Hersch S, Hurt E, and DeBeus R
Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 2012, pp 351-72