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neurofeedback Research


Research Papers

Does Virtual Reality Feedback at Infra-Low Frequency Improve Centralized Pain With Comorbid Insomnia While Mitigating Risks for Sedative Use Disorder? A Case Report
by Nnamdi Orakpo, Chujun Yuan, Olanrewaju Olukitibi, Jeff Burdette, Kim Arrington

A case of insomnia secondary to chronic pain that saw quick resolution for both conditions with ILF neurofeedback has been described. A 30-year-old with a history of degenerative disc with left-sided lumbar radiculopathy presented with a 3-month history of sciatica with severe left-sided hip and leg pain with radiculopathy. Medication support included hydroxycodone/—acetaminophen, diazepam, high dose naproxen, and cyclobenzaprine. Insomnia severity index was in the ‘moderate-severe’ range at intake. At the midpoint of a twenty-session training sequence, pain levels had improved by 60%, and insomnia by 70%; the cyclobenzaprine was discontinued; the diazepam was discontinued at session 12. At 20 sessions, as well as at one-year follow-up, the insomnia score was zero. Pain levels had reduced by >80% at the end of training and was further improved at one-year follow-up. Significantly, use of all controlled substances had ended during the course of training, and was not resumed, as confirmed via the Prescription Monitoring Program. The results are shown in the Figure.

Symptom severity is indicated for the Pre-training, mid-training, and end of training status (20 sessions), as well as for one-year follow-up. Both pain intensity and pain-related insomnia resolved.

Front. Hum. Neurosci. 16:891924. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.891924

Infra-low frequency neurofeedback and insomnia as a model of CNS dysregulation
by Paul Terrence Moore, MD

Insomnia may be seen as a paradigm for the model of cerebral dysregulation, in that conscious modulation of state is unavailable. After current understandings of sleep homeostatic mechanisms are presented, the history of behavioral methods targeting neurological disorders is recounted. This lays the foundation for ILF neurofeedback in application to insomnia. A representative case vignette is included. Excerpts follow:

"A 33-year-old female engineer presented with complaints of headaches, anxiety and insomnia. The initial Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score was 25, consistent with severe clinical insomnia. She also reported at least three moderately severe to severe headaches per week that had negative effects on her daytime functioning. Sleep onset was also inhibited by frequent mental rumination….Initial symptom tracker of 12 complaints yielded a composite score of 110 using a Likert scale of 0-10 per category (EEG Expert," After 30 sessions of ILF neurofeedback and two sessions of Alpha-Theta training, her "composite symptom tracker score is now 58 (53% of the starting value). She reports that her headaches have completely resolved, and her ISI is 11, indicative of subthreshold insomnia."

Front. Hum. Neurosci. 16:959491. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.959491

The Treatment of Psychophysiologic Insomnia with Biofeedback: A Replication Study [abs.]
by Hauri PJ, Percy L, Hellekson C, Hartmann E, Russ D

To replicate a previous study, 16 psychophysiological insomniacs were randomly assigned to either Theta feedback or sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) feedback.

Related Research

EEG Slow (~1 Hz) Waves Are Associated With Nonstationarity of Thalamo-Cortical Sensory Processing in the Sleeping Human
by Massimini M, Rosanova M, Mariotti M

Intracellular studies reveal that, during slow wave sleep (SWS), the entire cortical network can swing rhythmically between extremely different microstates, ranging from wakefulness-like network activation to functional disconnection in the space of a few hundred milliseconds.

Sleep Cyclic Alternating Pattern in Normal School-Age Children [abs.]
by Bruni O, Ferri R, Miano S, Verrillo E, Vittori E, Della Marca G, Farina B, Mennuni G

CAP parameters were quantified in 10 normal healthy subjects (6 males and 4 females, mean age 8.3 years; range 6-10 years). All subjects underwent polysomnography recordings for two consecutive nights in a standard laboratory setting. Sleep data were stored on computer using a 16-channel polysomnography digital system. Sleep macrostructure was visually scored according to the criteria by Rechtschaffen and Kales (Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 1968); CAP was visually scored following the criteria by Terzano et al. (Sleep Med 2 (2001) 537).

DC-EEG Discloses Prominent, Very Slow Activity Patterns During Sleep in Preterm Infants [abs.]
by Vanhatalo S, Tallgren P, Andersson S, Sainio K, Voipio J, Kaila K

The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the immature human brain exhibits slow electrical activity that is not detected by conventional (i.e. high-pass filtered) electroencephalography (EEG).

Recent Research

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback.
Ros T, Théberge J, Frewen PA, Kluetsch R, Densmore M, Calhoun VD, and Lanius RA
NeuroImage, 65, 2013, pp 324-35

Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback.
Scharnowski F, Hutton C, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, and Rees G
Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2012, pp 17830-41

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.
Nazari MA, Mosanezhad E, Hashemi T, and Jahan A
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 315-22

Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.
Pineda JA, Juavinett A, and Datko M
Medical Hypotheses, 79, 2012, pp 790-8

Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD.
Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, and Rohde LA
Neurotherapeutics, 9, 2012, pp 588-98

Current status of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, and Hurt E
Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 2012, pp 536-42

Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory.
Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak PI, Mak PU, Vai MI, and Rosa A
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86, 2012, pp 83-7

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.
Nelson DV, and Esty ML
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 2012, pp 237-40

Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series.
Surmeli T, Ertem A, Eralp E, and Kos IH
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 133-44

Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy?
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, and Sadeghi V
Neuroscience Letters, 516, 2012, pp 156-60

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: validation and challenges.
Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, and Heinrich H
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 2012, pp 447-60

Taking back the brain: could neurofeedback training be effective for relieving distressing auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia?
McCarthy-Jones S
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 2012, pp 678-82

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, Hersch S, Hurt E, and DeBeus R
Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 2012, pp 351-72