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neurofeedback Research

Special Topics


The Information Processing Mechanism of the Brain [pdf]
by Osterberg B

This dissertation describes the physical reality of how mental objects, such as perceptions, inner visions, thoughts and feelings exist in the brain in the form of patterns of neural activity. The text further examines the operation of pattern processing in the brain's assembly of networks - the storage and recall of patterns in the networks - and how this relates to familiar properties of the mental process of "thinking," such as the nature of the transition from one perception to another, and the drawing of a conclusion from several perceptions that are, or recently have been, active in the brain.

Related Research

Optimizing Microsurgical Skills with EEG Neurofeedback [pdf]
by Ros T, Moseley MJ, Bloom PA, Benjamin L, Parkinson LA, Gruzelier JH

SMR-Theta neurofeedback training provided significant improvement in surgical technique whilst considerably reducing time on task by 26%. There was also evidence that AT training marginally reduced total surgery time, despite suboptimal training efficacies. Overall, the data set provides encouraging evidence of optimised learning of a complex medical specialty via neurofeedback training.

Phase Sensitivity of Bipolar EEG Training Protocols [pdf]
by Putman JA M.A. M.S. and Othmer S Ph.D.

Neurofeedback with bipolar montage is finding increasing application, particularly with interhemispheric placement at homologous sites. Despite the increased utilization of this protocol, published scientific evidence as to its effectiveness remains sparse (Quirk, 1995, Sime, 2004, Putman,, 2005). Clinical utilization is further inhibited by an ambiguity as to just what is being accomplished with the training. The response to reinforcement of amplitude in a narrow reward band appears to be different from conventional up-training with referential placement (Putman, 2002).

Alpha-Contingent EEG Feedback Reduces SPECT rCBF Variability [abs.]
by McLaughlin T, Steinberg B, Mulholland T, Friberg L.

EEG feedback methods, which link the occurrence of alpha to the presentation of repeated visual stimuli, reduce the relative variability of subsequent, alpha-blocking event durations. The temporal association between electro-cortical field activation and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) led us to investigate whether the reduced variability of alpha-blocking durations with feedback is associated with a reduction in rCBF variability.

10-20 System of Electrode Placement
by Chudler EH

The 10-20 System of Electrode Placement is a method used to describe the location of scalp electrodes. These scalp electrodes are used to record the electroencephalogram (EEG) using a machine called an electroencephalograph. The EEG is a record of brain activity. This record is the result of the activity of thousands of neurons in the brain. The pattern of activity changes with the level of a person's arousal - if a person is relaxed, then the EEG has many slow waves; if a person is excited, then the EEG has many fast waves.

Signal Processing Techniques [pdf]
by Putman JA M.A. M.S.

Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier was a French mathematician who in his Theorie analytique de la chaleur (Analytical Theory of Heat), developed the technique known as Fourier Analysis. This technique has proven to have application in many other unrelated disciplines including (in our case) the analysis of electromagnetic signals. Fourier's Theorem essentially states that the frequency content of any signal can be described as the sum of a specific set of sine waves. The sine wave is the only pure frequency and any distortion of this shape represents harmonics of some fundamental frequency. Thus any wave, no matter how oddly shaped, can be broken down into its component sine waves.

Comprehensive Neurofeedback Bibliography
by Hammond DC Ph.D.

These references are primarily outcome studies and case reports, with an occasional reference to significant conceptual papers or reviews. References will occationally appear under more than one problem area when the paper deals with more than one disorder.

Scalp Electrodes, Impedance, Infection Risk and EEG Data Quality [pdf]
by Ferree T, Luu P, Russell GS, Tucker DM

The first section of the paper reviews electrophysiological recording with modern high input-impedance differential amplifiers and subject isolation, and explains how scalpelectrode impedance influences EEG signal amplitude and power line noise. The second section of the paper presents an empirical test of EEG data quality as a function of scalp-electrode impedance for the standard frequency bands in EEG and ERP (event-related potential) recording.

Recent Research

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback.
Ros T, Théberge J, Frewen PA, Kluetsch R, Densmore M, Calhoun VD, and Lanius RA
NeuroImage, 65, 2013, pp 324-35

Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback.
Scharnowski F, Hutton C, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, and Rees G
Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2012, pp 17830-41

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.
Nazari MA, Mosanezhad E, Hashemi T, and Jahan A
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 315-22

Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.
Pineda JA, Juavinett A, and Datko M
Medical Hypotheses, 79, 2012, pp 790-8

Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD.
Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, and Rohde LA
Neurotherapeutics, 9, 2012, pp 588-98

Current status of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, and Hurt E
Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 2012, pp 536-42

Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory.
Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak PI, Mak PU, Vai MI, and Rosa A
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86, 2012, pp 83-7

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.
Nelson DV, and Esty ML
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 2012, pp 237-40

Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series.
Surmeli T, Ertem A, Eralp E, and Kos IH
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 133-44

Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy?
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, and Sadeghi V
Neuroscience Letters, 516, 2012, pp 156-60

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: validation and challenges.
Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, and Heinrich H
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 2012, pp 447-60

Taking back the brain: could neurofeedback training be effective for relieving distressing auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia?
McCarthy-Jones S
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 2012, pp 678-82

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, Hersch S, Hurt E, and DeBeus R
Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 2012, pp 351-72