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Neurofeedback Research


Review Papers

Neurofeedback with Anxiety and Affective Disorders
by Hammond DC Ph.D. ABEN/ECNS

Compelling evidence exists for a neurophysiologic basis for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A large number of positron emission tomographic and single photon emission computed tomographic studies have found increased blood flow and metabolism in the mediofrontal, anterior cingulate, right frontal, or orbitofrontal areas [1-14], which implicates a cortico-striato-thalamocortical network. Functional abnormalities also have been documented in a large number of quantitative EEG (qEEG) studies [15-22] and evoked potential studies [23-27]. OCD seems to be somewhat heterogeneous, however, with at least two qEEG subtypes that have been found [17-21].

A Review of EEG Biofeedback Treatment of Anxiety Disorders [abs.]
by Moore NC

Alpha, theta and alpha-theta enhancements are effective treatments of the anxiety disorders (Table 1). Alpha suppression is also effective, but less so (Table 2). Perceived success in carrying out the task plays an important role in clinical improvement.


Case Study: Anxiety and Panic Attacks
by The Biocybernaut Institute

This 29 year old woman was a victim of repeated panic attacks. She decided to try alpha brain wave training after the discouraging and ineffective experiences she had while seeking treatment for her condition through the modes of traditional medicine, which included medical doctors, therapists, even hypnotists.

Research Papers

Treatment of Chronic Anxiety Disorder with Neurotherapy: A Case Study
by Thomas JE Ph.D. and Sattlberger E B.A.

The objective of the present case study is to report the effects of alpha-decrease biofeedback training on a patient diagnosed with Anxiety Disorder Three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPI and MMPI-2) were used as objective measures of treatment efficacy. Following 15 sessions of slow wave inhibit/fast wave increase EEG feedback training, the patient reported a significant reduction in anxiety-related symptoms.

Anxiety Change Through Electroencephalographic Alpha Feedback Seen Only in High Anxiety Subjects [abs.]
by Hardt JV and Kamiya J

Subjects who were either high or low in trait anxiety used alpha feedback to increase and to decrease their electroencephalographic alpha activity. The alpha changes were tightly linked to anxiety changes, but only in high anxiety subjects (for whom anxiety was reduced in proportion to alpha increases, and was increased in proportion to alpha suppression).

Evaluating the Efficacy of a Biofeedback Intervention to Reduce Children's Anxiety [abs.]
by Wenck LS, Leu PW, D'Amato RC

This study explored the reduction of anxiety with children using a combination of electromyograph and thermal biofeedback techniques. One hundred and fifty children (7th and 8th graders) were identified by teachers as anxious and randomly assigned to biofeedback intervention and no-intervention groups.

Biofeedback Treatments of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Preliminary Results [abs.]
by Rice KM, Blanchard EB, Purcell M

Forty-five individuals with generalized anxiety (38 with GAD as defined by DSM-III) were randomized to 4 treatment conditions or a waiting list control. Patients received 8 sessions of either frontal EMG biofeedback, biofeedback to increase EEG alpha, biofeedback to decrease EEG alpha, or a pseudomeditation control condition.

Recent Research

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback.
Ros T, Théberge J, Frewen PA, Kluetsch R, Densmore M, Calhoun VD, and Lanius RA
NeuroImage, 65, 2013, pp 324-35

Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback.
Scharnowski F, Hutton C, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, and Rees G
Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2012, pp 17830-41

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.
Nazari MA, Mosanezhad E, Hashemi T, and Jahan A
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 315-22

Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.
Pineda JA, Juavinett A, and Datko M
Medical Hypotheses, 79, 2012, pp 790-8

Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD.
Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, and Rohde LA
Neurotherapeutics, 9, 2012, pp 588-98

Current status of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, and Hurt E
Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 2012, pp 536-42

Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory.
Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak PI, Mak PU, Vai MI, and Rosa A
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86, 2012, pp 83-7

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.
Nelson DV, and Esty ML
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 2012, pp 237-40

Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series.
Surmeli T, Ertem A, Eralp E, and Kos IH
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 133-44

Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy?
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, and Sadeghi V
Neuroscience Letters, 516, 2012, pp 156-60

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: validation and challenges.
Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, and Heinrich H
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 2012, pp 447-60

Taking back the brain: could neurofeedback training be effective for relieving distressing auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia?
McCarthy-Jones S
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 2012, pp 678-82

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, Hersch S, Hurt E, and DeBeus R
Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 2012, pp 351-72