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Neurofeedback Research



Effectivity of ILF Neurofeedback on Autism spectrum disorder – a Case Study
by Alexandra Rauter, Horst Schneider, Wolfgang Prinz

A five-year-old boy with ASD underwent 26 training sessions at a single placement over the course of six months. Strong improvements were documented in comprehensive symptom tracking, with the notable exception of behavioral symptoms, where improvement was a mere 15%. Overall improvement was 50% with respect to pre-training values. Pre-post results in terms of symptom severity are shown in the Figure.

Symptom severity ratings for six functional domains before and after 26 sessions of ILF neurofeedback at a single placement.
Front. Hum. Neurosci. 16:891547. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2022.891547

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Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback for Early Development and Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Disorders [pdf]
by Roxana Sasu, MD

This monograph is an augmented version of a chapter appearing in Restoring the Brain, Second Edition (Taylor and Francis)

This monograph covers various aspects of neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as behavioral and emotional disorders of childhood and adolescence. It presents an overview of ten years of working with this population in our clinical practice of neurofeedback. It discusses how our implementation of Infra-Low Frequency (ILF) neurofeedback training, with emphasis on interpreting presenting symptoms in terms of basic failure modes, guides the clinical decisions made throughout the process. Several illustrative case studies are presented: some with similar formal diagnoses but strikingly different clinical presentations highlight the uniqueness of each case. The case studies also illustrate how interesting and challenging this work with early childhood developmental and behavioral disorders can be for the clinician. At the same time, this work is satisfying and rewarding, when the clinician can observe the positive impact of neurofeedback on all these disorders and see also how the neurofeedback complements and potentiates other interventions and modalities used to address such issues in children and adolescents.

Neurofeedback for the Autism Spectrum [pdf]
by Siegfried and Susan F. Othmer

Neurofeedback is a highly promising emerging therapy for the autism spectrum. At issue here is a tool for the direct training of brain function, one that has already shown itself highly effective in addressing a wide range of "mental health" concerns. As has been the case for other therapies, its application to the autism spectrum has been complicated by the inherent complexity of the condition we confront. In the following, we recapitulate the development of neurofeedback for the autism spectrum and give some guidance to both therapists and parents with regard to the choices open to them.

School-Based Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder [pdf]
by Darling M

Neurofeedback is an intervention that is showing a lot of promise for people diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). While other childhood behaviour disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been in the neurofeedback limelight for some years, it would appear that ASD is about to have its day in the sun. Recent research is showing that children with ASD are responding very well to both electroencephalographic (EEG) and haemoencephalographic (HEG) neurofeedback. Furthermore, our own research indicates that neurofeedback can be an effective schoolbased intervention for children in the autistic spectrum.

Research Papers

Assessment-Guided Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder [pdf]
by Coben R Ph.D. and Padolsky I Ph.D.

In recent years, Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has shown a dramatic increase in prevalence. A review of prevalence survey research for ASD (identified by DSM-IV criteria for Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified) across the United States and the United Kingdom reported rates of ASD substantially increased from prior surveys indicating 5 to 10 per 10,000 children to as high as 50 to 80 per 10,000 (equivalent to a range of 1 in 200 to 1 in 125 children with ASD) (Blaxill, 2004).

EEG Power and Coherence in Autistic Spectrum Disorder [abs.]
by Coben R, Clarke AR, Hudspeth W, Barry RJ

These results suggest dysfunctional integration of frontal and posterior brain regions in autistics along with a pattern of neural underconnectivity. This is consistent with other EEG, MRI and fMRI research suggesting that neural connectivity anomalies are a major deficit leading to autistic symptomatology.

Positive Outcome With Neurofeedback Treatment In a Case of Mild Autism
by Sichel AG, Fehmi LG, Goldstein DM

This article looks at the experience of Frankie, an autistic 8 and 1/2 year old boy. He was diagnosed mildly autistic by several specialists. One specialist claimed he was brain damaged and "autistic-like" and that there was no hope for improvement. At Frankie's mother's request, neurotherapy diagnosis and treatment was begun. After 31 sessions, Frankie showed Positive changes in all the diagnostic dimensions defining autism in DSM-111-P, This has profound implications for treatment in a field with few low-risk alternatives.

Efficacy of Neurofeedback for Children in the Autistic Spectrum: A Pilot Study
by Jarusiewicz B Ph.D.

The efficacy of Neurofeedback training was evaluated in 12 children in the autistic spectrum with matched controls, based on established training protocols for other conditions with similar symptoms. Twenty-four autistic children were divided into two groups, matched by sex, age, and disorder severity. One group received Neurofeedback training and the second acted as a control group.

Autism: Case Study [pdf]
by Cowan J Ph.D.

About 8-9 years ago I reported the case history of an eight-year-old autistic girl (triply diagnosed as high-functioning autistic) who came to me for training at the Winter Brain Meeting. She was so non-communicative that she would hide under the couch.

Autism/Asperger's/Obnoxious Child, 3 Case Histories: How We Get Positive Results with Complex ADD Clients
by Thompson L Ph.D. and Thompson M M.D.

Three brief case histories on the scale of primarily organic to primarily psychologically based social-behavioural disorders are described. All three children and their families, previous to coming for neurofeedback, had had very considerable intervention both from the school system and from other clinical resources. All previous efforts from other clinical resources had minimal benefit.

Recent Research

Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback.
Ros T, Théberge J, Frewen PA, Kluetsch R, Densmore M, Calhoun VD, and Lanius RA
NeuroImage, 65, 2013, pp 324-35

Improving Visual Perception through Neurofeedback.
Scharnowski F, Hutton C, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, and Rees G
Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 2012, pp 17830-41

The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG coherence and neuropsychological functions in children with reading disability.
Nazari MA, Mosanezhad E, Hashemi T, and Jahan A
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 315-22

Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism.
Pineda JA, Juavinett A, and Datko M
Medical Hypotheses, 79, 2012, pp 790-8

Evidence-based information on the clinical use of neurofeedback for ADHD.
Moriyama TS, Polanczyk G, Caye A, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, and Rohde LA
Neurotherapeutics, 9, 2012, pp 588-98

Current status of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, and Hurt E
Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 2012, pp 536-42

Individual alpha neurofeedback training effect on short term memory.
Nan W, Rodrigues JP, Ma J, Qu X, Wan F, Mak PI, Mak PU, Vai MI, and Rosa A
International Journal of Psychophysiology, 86, 2012, pp 83-7

Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans.
Nelson DV, and Esty ML
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24, 2012, pp 237-40

Schizophrenia and the efficacy of qEEG-guided neurofeedback treatment: a clinical case series.
Surmeli T, Ertem A, Eralp E, and Kos IH
Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43, 2012, pp 133-44

Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy?
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, and Sadeghi V
Neuroscience Letters, 516, 2012, pp 156-60

Neurofeedback in children with ADHD: validation and challenges.
Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, and Heinrich H
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 2012, pp 447-60

Taking back the brain: could neurofeedback training be effective for relieving distressing auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia?
McCarthy-Jones S
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38, 2012, pp 678-82

A review of neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD.
Lofthouse N, Arnold LE, Hersch S, Hurt E, and DeBeus R
Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 2012, pp 351-72